The Eucalyptus genus (Myrtaceae) is characterized by a richness in essential oils (EO) with multiple biological activities. This study reports the chemical composition and the phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the EOs from Tunisian E. occidentalis, E. striaticalyx and E. stricklandii. The EOs were analyzed using GC/MS and their phytotoxicities were assessed against the germination and seedling growth of Sinapis arvensis, Trifolium campestre and Lolium rigidum. Antimicrobial activity was investigated against both Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) bacteria. The inhibition of biofilm formation and its metabolism was determined at different times. All EOs were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (36.3-84.8%); the EO of E. occidentalis was rich in sesquiterpenes, both oxygenated and hydrocarbon (40.0% and 15.0%, respectively). Eucalyptol was the main constituent in all samples. The EOs showed phytotoxic activity on seed germination and seedling growth, depending both on chemical composition and weed. The EOs show a remarkable antibacterial potential resulting in a significant inhibition of the formation of bacterial biofilm and its metabolism, depending on the EO and the strain, with activity on the mature biofilm as well. Therefore, these Eucalyptus EOs could have potential applications both in the food and health fields.
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