Mast cell neoplasms are an emerging challenge in the fields of internal medicine, allergy, immunology, dermatology, laboratory medicine, and pathology. In this review, we discuss the current standards for the diagnosis and prognostication of mast cell neoplasms with special reference to clinically relevant germline and somatic gene variants. In patients with cutaneous mastocytosis or with indolent systemic mastocytosis (SM), various KIT-activating mutations act as key molecular drivers of the disease. In adults, KIT p.D816V is by far the most prevalent driver, whereas other KIT mutants are detected in nearly 40% of children. In advanced SM, including aggressive SM, SM with an associated hematological neoplasm, and mast cell leukemia, additional somatic mutations in other genes, such as SRSF2, JAK2, RUNX1, ASXL1, or RAS, may be detected. These drivers are more frequently detected in SM with an associated hematological neoplasm, particularly in male patients. Recently, hereditary alpha-tryptasemia has been identified as a genetic trait more prevalent in SM compared with healthy controls. Moreover, hereditary alpha-tryptasemia is more frequent in patients with SM with Hymenoptera venom allergy and severe mediator-related symptoms than in patients with SM without symptoms. On the basis of this knowledge, we propose a diagnostic algorithm in which genetic markers are applied together with clinical and histopathologic criteria to establish the diagnosis and prognosis in SM.

Clinical impact and proposed application of molecular markers, genetic variants, and cytogenetic analysis in mast cell neoplasms: Status 2022

Triggiani M.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Mast cell neoplasms are an emerging challenge in the fields of internal medicine, allergy, immunology, dermatology, laboratory medicine, and pathology. In this review, we discuss the current standards for the diagnosis and prognostication of mast cell neoplasms with special reference to clinically relevant germline and somatic gene variants. In patients with cutaneous mastocytosis or with indolent systemic mastocytosis (SM), various KIT-activating mutations act as key molecular drivers of the disease. In adults, KIT p.D816V is by far the most prevalent driver, whereas other KIT mutants are detected in nearly 40% of children. In advanced SM, including aggressive SM, SM with an associated hematological neoplasm, and mast cell leukemia, additional somatic mutations in other genes, such as SRSF2, JAK2, RUNX1, ASXL1, or RAS, may be detected. These drivers are more frequently detected in SM with an associated hematological neoplasm, particularly in male patients. Recently, hereditary alpha-tryptasemia has been identified as a genetic trait more prevalent in SM compared with healthy controls. Moreover, hereditary alpha-tryptasemia is more frequent in patients with SM with Hymenoptera venom allergy and severe mediator-related symptoms than in patients with SM without symptoms. On the basis of this knowledge, we propose a diagnostic algorithm in which genetic markers are applied together with clinical and histopathologic criteria to establish the diagnosis and prognosis in SM.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4812574
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