Background: Biologics are currently one of the main treatment options for a number of diseases. The IgG4 monoclonal antibody dupilumab targets the Interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain, thus preventing the biological effects of the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, that are essential for the Th2 response. Several controlled trials showed that dupilumab is effective and safe in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), severe asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), thus resulting in approval by regulatory agencies. Aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dupilumab in adult patients with CRSwNP stratified by common overlapping comorbid conditions. Methods: We performed a multicenter, observational, prospective study enrolling adult patients with severe CRSwNP who had started dupilumab treatment in the context of standard care from January 2021 to October 2021. Data were collected from twentynine Italian secondary care centers for allergy and clinical immunology, all of which were part of the Italian Society of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology (SIAAIC). A number of efficacy parameters were used. Patient data were compared using the Wilcoxon test for paired data. All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 20 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Results: In total, 82 patients with nasal polyposis were identified. A significant improvement was detected for all the applied efficacy parameters, i.e. 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) and bilateral endoscopic nasal polyp score (NPS) scores for CRSwNP, Rhinitis Control Scoring System (RCSS) and Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) scores for allergic perennial rhinitis, Forced Expiratory Volume in the 1st second (FEV1) and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) scores for asthma, Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores for AD. A non-significant improvement was also obtained in the Urticaria Activity Score over 7 days (UAS7) for chronic spontaneous urticaria. Treatment with dupilumab was well tolerated. Conclusions: These data suggest that dupilumab treatment in patients suffering from CRSwNP and associated comorbidities may be suitable. Such outcome, although confirmation by trials is warranted, suggests the possibility to treat different disorders with a single therapy, with favorable effects especially under the cost-effectiveness aspect.
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