Background: Neuroinflammation is a key component in the etiopathogenesis of neurological diseases and brain aging. This process involves the brain immune system that modulates synaptic functions and protects neurons from infection or damage. Hence, the knowledge of neu-roinflammation related pathways and modulation by drugs or natural compounds is functional to developing therapeutic strategies aimed at preserving, maintaining and restoring brain health. Objective: This review article summarizes the basics of neuroinflammation and related signaling pathways, the success of the dietary intervention in clinical practice and the possible development of RNA-based strategies for treating neurological diseases. Methods: Pubmed search from 2012 to 2022 with the keywords neuroinflammation and molecular mechanisms in combination with diet, miRNA and non-coding RNA. Results: Glial cells-play a crucial role in neuroinflammation, but several pathways can be activated in response to different inflammatory stimuli, inducing cell death by apoptosis, pyroptosis or necroptosis. The dietary intervention has immunomodulatory effects and could limit the inflammatory process induced by microglia and astrocytes. Thus by inhibiting neuroinflammation and improving the symptoms of a variety of neurological diseases, diet exerts pleiotropic neuroprotective effects independently from the spectrum of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the specific disorder. Furthermore, data from animal models revealed that altered expression of specific non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs, contributes to neuroinflammatory diseases; consequently, RNA-based strategies may be promising to alleviate the consequences of neuroinflammation. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to identify the molecular pathways and the new pharmaco-logical targets in neuroinflammation to lay the basis for more effective and selective therapies to be applied, in parallel to dietary intervention, in the treatment of neuroinflammation-based diseases.

Neuroinflammation: Molecular Mechanisms And Therapeutic Perspectives

Marino, Marianna
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Mele, Elena
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Pastorino, Grazia Maria Giovanna
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Operto, Francesca Felicia
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Santoro, Antonietta
Conceptualization
;
Viggiano, Andrea
Conceptualization
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Neuroinflammation is a key component in the etiopathogenesis of neurological diseases and brain aging. This process involves the brain immune system that modulates synaptic functions and protects neurons from infection or damage. Hence, the knowledge of neu-roinflammation related pathways and modulation by drugs or natural compounds is functional to developing therapeutic strategies aimed at preserving, maintaining and restoring brain health. Objective: This review article summarizes the basics of neuroinflammation and related signaling pathways, the success of the dietary intervention in clinical practice and the possible development of RNA-based strategies for treating neurological diseases. Methods: Pubmed search from 2012 to 2022 with the keywords neuroinflammation and molecular mechanisms in combination with diet, miRNA and non-coding RNA. Results: Glial cells-play a crucial role in neuroinflammation, but several pathways can be activated in response to different inflammatory stimuli, inducing cell death by apoptosis, pyroptosis or necroptosis. The dietary intervention has immunomodulatory effects and could limit the inflammatory process induced by microglia and astrocytes. Thus by inhibiting neuroinflammation and improving the symptoms of a variety of neurological diseases, diet exerts pleiotropic neuroprotective effects independently from the spectrum of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the specific disorder. Furthermore, data from animal models revealed that altered expression of specific non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs, contributes to neuroinflammatory diseases; consequently, RNA-based strategies may be promising to alleviate the consequences of neuroinflammation. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to identify the molecular pathways and the new pharmaco-logical targets in neuroinflammation to lay the basis for more effective and selective therapies to be applied, in parallel to dietary intervention, in the treatment of neuroinflammation-based diseases.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4813085
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