: Some cancer patients display a less aggressive form of metastatic disease, characterized by a low tumor burden and involving a smaller number of sites, which is referred to as "oligometastatic disease" (OMD). This review discusses new biomarkers, as well as methodological challenges and perspectives characterizing OMD. Recent studies have revealed that specific microRNA profiles, chromosome patterns, driver gene mutations (ERBB2, PBRM1, SETD2, KRAS, PIK3CA, SMAD4), polymorphisms (TCF7L2), and levels of immune cell infiltration into metastases, depending on the tumor type, are associated with an oligometastatic behavior. This suggests that OMD could be a distinct disease with specific biological and molecular characteristics. Therefore, the heterogeneity of initial tumor burden and inclusion of OMD patients in clinical trials pose a crucial methodological question that requires responses in the near future. Additionally, a solid understanding of the molecular and biological features of OMD will be necessary to support and complete the clinical staging systems, enabling a better distinction of metastatic behavior and tailored treatments.
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