Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of manufactured chemicals that have recently attracted a great deal of attention from environmental regulators and the general public because of their high prevalence, resistance to degradation, and potential toxicity. This review summarizes the current state of PFAS and its effects on the environment of North Carolina, USA. Specific emphasis has been placed to identify i) the sources of PFAS in North Carolina ii) distribution of PFAS in different environmental segments of North Carolina, including surface water, groundwater, air, and sediment iii) drinking water contamination iv) impact of PFAS on human health v) PFAS accumulation in fish and other biota vi) status of PFAS removal from drinking water and finally vi) socioeconomic impact of PFAS uncertainties. Continuous discharges of PFAS occur in the North Carolina environment from direct and indirect sources, including manufacturing sites, firefighting foam, waste disposal and treatment plants, landfill leachate, and industrial emissions. PFAS are widespread in many environmental segments of North Carolina. They are more likely to be detected in surface and groundwater sediments and can enter aquatic bodies through direct discharge and wet and dry deposition of emissions. Eventually, some adverse effects of PFAS have already been reported in North Carolina residents who could have been exposed to the chemicals through contaminated drinking water. Furthermore, PFAS were also found in blood samples from fish and alligators. PFAS were confirmed to be present in water, sediment, organic compounds, and aquatic species at all levels of the food web. However, there is still a substantial amount of work to be done to understand the actual contamination by PFAS in North Carolina comprehensively.

Environmental and health impacts of PFAS: Sources, distribution and sustainable management in North Carolina (USA)

Naddeo, Vincenzo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of manufactured chemicals that have recently attracted a great deal of attention from environmental regulators and the general public because of their high prevalence, resistance to degradation, and potential toxicity. This review summarizes the current state of PFAS and its effects on the environment of North Carolina, USA. Specific emphasis has been placed to identify i) the sources of PFAS in North Carolina ii) distribution of PFAS in different environmental segments of North Carolina, including surface water, groundwater, air, and sediment iii) drinking water contamination iv) impact of PFAS on human health v) PFAS accumulation in fish and other biota vi) status of PFAS removal from drinking water and finally vi) socioeconomic impact of PFAS uncertainties. Continuous discharges of PFAS occur in the North Carolina environment from direct and indirect sources, including manufacturing sites, firefighting foam, waste disposal and treatment plants, landfill leachate, and industrial emissions. PFAS are widespread in many environmental segments of North Carolina. They are more likely to be detected in surface and groundwater sediments and can enter aquatic bodies through direct discharge and wet and dry deposition of emissions. Eventually, some adverse effects of PFAS have already been reported in North Carolina residents who could have been exposed to the chemicals through contaminated drinking water. Furthermore, PFAS were also found in blood samples from fish and alligators. PFAS were confirmed to be present in water, sediment, organic compounds, and aquatic species at all levels of the food web. However, there is still a substantial amount of work to be done to understand the actual contamination by PFAS in North Carolina comprehensively.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4820671
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