: The control of cardiovascular risk factors, the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, and antithrombotic therapy are the cornerstones of secondary prevention after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, many patients have recurrent ischemic events despite the optimal control of traditional modifiable risk factors and the use of tailored pharmacological therapy, including new-generation antiplatelet and lipid-lowering agents. This evidence emphasizes the importance of identifying novel risk factors and targets to optimize secondary preventive strategies. Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) has emerged as an independent predictor of adverse events after ACS. New molecules such as anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies, small interfering RNAs, and antisense oligonucleotides can reduce plasma Lp(a) levels and are associated with a long-term outcome benefit after the index event. The inflammatory stimulus and the inflammasome, pivotal elements in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, have been widely investigated in patients with coronary artery disease. More recently, randomized clinical trials including post-ACS patients treated with colchicine and monoclonal antibodies targeting cytokines yielded promising results in the reduction in major cardiovascular events after an ACS. Gut dysbiosis has also raised great interest for its potential pathophysiological role in cardiovascular disease. This evidence, albeit preliminary and needing confirmation by larger population-based studies, suggests the possibility of targeting the gut microbiome in particularly high-risk populations. The risk of recurrent ischemic events after ACS is related to the complex interaction between intrinsic predisposing factors and environmental triggers. The identification of novel risk factors and targets is fundamental to customizing patient clinical management with a precision medicine perspective.

Secondary Cardiovascular Prevention after Acute Coronary Syndrome: Emerging Risk Factors and Novel Therapeutic Targets

Silverio, Angelo
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Cancro, Francesco Paolo
Formal Analysis
;
Bellino, Michele
Investigation
;
D'Elia, Debora
Methodology
;
Vassallo, Maria Giovanna
Data Curation
;
Ciccarelli, Michele
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Vecchione, Carmine
Supervision
;
Galasso, Gennaro
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
De Luca, Giuseppe
Membro del Collaboration Group
2023-01-01

Abstract

: The control of cardiovascular risk factors, the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, and antithrombotic therapy are the cornerstones of secondary prevention after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, many patients have recurrent ischemic events despite the optimal control of traditional modifiable risk factors and the use of tailored pharmacological therapy, including new-generation antiplatelet and lipid-lowering agents. This evidence emphasizes the importance of identifying novel risk factors and targets to optimize secondary preventive strategies. Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) has emerged as an independent predictor of adverse events after ACS. New molecules such as anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies, small interfering RNAs, and antisense oligonucleotides can reduce plasma Lp(a) levels and are associated with a long-term outcome benefit after the index event. The inflammatory stimulus and the inflammasome, pivotal elements in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, have been widely investigated in patients with coronary artery disease. More recently, randomized clinical trials including post-ACS patients treated with colchicine and monoclonal antibodies targeting cytokines yielded promising results in the reduction in major cardiovascular events after an ACS. Gut dysbiosis has also raised great interest for its potential pathophysiological role in cardiovascular disease. This evidence, albeit preliminary and needing confirmation by larger population-based studies, suggests the possibility of targeting the gut microbiome in particularly high-risk populations. The risk of recurrent ischemic events after ACS is related to the complex interaction between intrinsic predisposing factors and environmental triggers. The identification of novel risk factors and targets is fundamental to customizing patient clinical management with a precision medicine perspective.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4821931
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