Solar driven advanced oxidation processes (S-AOPs) have been successfully investigated in the last years as tertiary and quaternary treatment of urban wastewater for simultaneous inactivation of microorganisms and removal of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), respectively. However, the lack of data about the comparison with consolidated technologies, including also the evaluation of their impact on the environment, has contributed to humper their application at full scale so far. In this study, the environmental impact of a new S-AOP, namely sequential treatment (ST) with sunlight/H2O2 and solar photo-Fenton (SPF) at neutral pH (using Ethylenediamine-N, N′-disuccinic acid (EDDS) as chelating agent) operated at pilot scale in a raceway pond reactor, was compared to a pilot scale ozonation (O3) treatment unit in terms of simultaneous bacteria inactivation and CECs removal, through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Different urban wastewater treatment plant (UWWTP) sizes and scenarios (namely effluent disposal and reuse) were evaluated. While the reuse scenario resulted in a higher impact compared to the disposal scenario in the construction/deconstruction phase, due to the more stringent limits that resulted in longer treatment time and a higher consumption of raw materials, the positive impact on water resources saving compared to disposal makes the reuse scenario a more sustainable solution. Despite O3 disinfection by-products were taken into account, ST resulted in a higher toxicity to human health (0.27·10−9 DALYs Vs 2.11 10−9 DALYs, respectively) due to the higher residual concentration of the target CECs. However, it is noteworthy that both values are significantly lower than the acceptable DALYs value (≤10−6). Chemicals, energy, groundwater consumption and residual CECs can affect resources 1125 and 1874 times more for O3 treatment than for the ST, for disposal and reuse scenarios, respectively. The total impact of O3 on the human health was 13 and 19 times higher compared to ST, for disposal and reuse scenarios, respectively, due to the higher energy and chemical consumption. According to the LCA results, ST resulted in a better overall environmental performance compared to O3 and it is a more sustainable and attractive solution in particular for small UWWTPs.

Ozonation Vs sequential solar driven processes as simultaneous tertiary and quaternary treatments of urban wastewater: A life cycle assessment comparison

Maniakova G.;Rizzo L.
2023-01-01

Abstract

Solar driven advanced oxidation processes (S-AOPs) have been successfully investigated in the last years as tertiary and quaternary treatment of urban wastewater for simultaneous inactivation of microorganisms and removal of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), respectively. However, the lack of data about the comparison with consolidated technologies, including also the evaluation of their impact on the environment, has contributed to humper their application at full scale so far. In this study, the environmental impact of a new S-AOP, namely sequential treatment (ST) with sunlight/H2O2 and solar photo-Fenton (SPF) at neutral pH (using Ethylenediamine-N, N′-disuccinic acid (EDDS) as chelating agent) operated at pilot scale in a raceway pond reactor, was compared to a pilot scale ozonation (O3) treatment unit in terms of simultaneous bacteria inactivation and CECs removal, through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Different urban wastewater treatment plant (UWWTP) sizes and scenarios (namely effluent disposal and reuse) were evaluated. While the reuse scenario resulted in a higher impact compared to the disposal scenario in the construction/deconstruction phase, due to the more stringent limits that resulted in longer treatment time and a higher consumption of raw materials, the positive impact on water resources saving compared to disposal makes the reuse scenario a more sustainable solution. Despite O3 disinfection by-products were taken into account, ST resulted in a higher toxicity to human health (0.27·10−9 DALYs Vs 2.11 10−9 DALYs, respectively) due to the higher residual concentration of the target CECs. However, it is noteworthy that both values are significantly lower than the acceptable DALYs value (≤10−6). Chemicals, energy, groundwater consumption and residual CECs can affect resources 1125 and 1874 times more for O3 treatment than for the ST, for disposal and reuse scenarios, respectively. The total impact of O3 on the human health was 13 and 19 times higher compared to ST, for disposal and reuse scenarios, respectively, due to the higher energy and chemical consumption. According to the LCA results, ST resulted in a better overall environmental performance compared to O3 and it is a more sustainable and attractive solution in particular for small UWWTPs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4827615
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