Many studies have explored the extraction of bioactive compounds from different onion solid wastes, such as bulb, skin, and peel. However, onion leaves have received limited attention despite their potential as a valuable source of nutraceutical compounds. This study aimed to valorise, for the first time, the agricultural waste in the form of spring onion leaves (CN, Cipollotto Nocerino) to obtain antioxidant-rich polyphenolic extracts. A Box–Behnken design (BBD) was used to assess the impact of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) variables (temperature, time, extraction volume, and ethanol concentration) on total polyphenol content (TPC) measured by Folin–Ciocalteu method and the antioxidant power determined by FRAP assay. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied, and regression equations, analysis of variance, and 3D response curves were developed. Our results highlighted that the TPC values range from 0.76 to 1.43 mg GAE g−1 dw, while the FRAP values range from 8.25 to 14.80 mmol Fe(II)E g−1 dw. The optimal extraction conditions predicted by the model were 60 °C, 22 min, ethanol concentration 51% (v/v), and solvent volume 11 mL. These conditions resulted in TPC and FRAP values of 1.35 mg GAE g−1 dw and 14.02 mmol Fe(II)E g−1 dw, respectively. Furthermore, the extract obtained under optimized conditions was characterized by UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS analysis. LC/MS–MS platform allowed us to tentatively identify various compounds belonging to the class of flavonoids, saponins, fatty acids, and lipids. Finally, the ability of CN optimal extract to inhibit the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) release in a hepatocarcinoma cell line using an H2O2-induced oxidative stress model, was evaluated. The results highlighted the potential of CN extract as a valuable source of polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties, suitable for various applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from spring onion leaves using Box–Behnken design

Aquino G.;Basilicata M. G.
;
Crescenzi C.;Vestuto V.;Salviati E.;Cerrato M.;Ciaglia T.;Sansone F.;Pepe G.;Campiglia P.
2023-01-01

Abstract

Many studies have explored the extraction of bioactive compounds from different onion solid wastes, such as bulb, skin, and peel. However, onion leaves have received limited attention despite their potential as a valuable source of nutraceutical compounds. This study aimed to valorise, for the first time, the agricultural waste in the form of spring onion leaves (CN, Cipollotto Nocerino) to obtain antioxidant-rich polyphenolic extracts. A Box–Behnken design (BBD) was used to assess the impact of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) variables (temperature, time, extraction volume, and ethanol concentration) on total polyphenol content (TPC) measured by Folin–Ciocalteu method and the antioxidant power determined by FRAP assay. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied, and regression equations, analysis of variance, and 3D response curves were developed. Our results highlighted that the TPC values range from 0.76 to 1.43 mg GAE g−1 dw, while the FRAP values range from 8.25 to 14.80 mmol Fe(II)E g−1 dw. The optimal extraction conditions predicted by the model were 60 °C, 22 min, ethanol concentration 51% (v/v), and solvent volume 11 mL. These conditions resulted in TPC and FRAP values of 1.35 mg GAE g−1 dw and 14.02 mmol Fe(II)E g−1 dw, respectively. Furthermore, the extract obtained under optimized conditions was characterized by UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS analysis. LC/MS–MS platform allowed us to tentatively identify various compounds belonging to the class of flavonoids, saponins, fatty acids, and lipids. Finally, the ability of CN optimal extract to inhibit the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) release in a hepatocarcinoma cell line using an H2O2-induced oxidative stress model, was evaluated. The results highlighted the potential of CN extract as a valuable source of polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties, suitable for various applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4842891
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