Background: Investigation of sex-related motor and non-motor differences and biological markers in Parkinson's disease (PD) may improve precision medicine approach. Objective: To examine sex-related longitudinal changes in motor and non-motor features and biologic biomarkers in early PD. Methods: We compared 5-year longitudinal changes in de novo, untreated PD men and women (at baseline N = 423; 65.5%male) of the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI), assessing motor and non-motor manifestations of disease; and biologic measures in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and dopamine transporter deficit on DaTscanTM uptake. Results: Men experienced greater longitudinal decline in self-reported motor (p < 0.001) and non-motor (p = 0.009) aspects of experiences of daily living, such that men had a yearly increase in MDS-UPDRS part II by a multiplicative factor of 1.27 compared to women at 0.7, while men had a yearly increase in MDS-UPDRS part I by a multiplicative factor of 0.98, compared to women at 0.67. Compared to women, men had more longitudinal progression in clinician-assessed motor features in the ON medication state (p = 0.010) and required higher dopaminergic medication dosages over time (p = 0.014). Time to reach specific disease milestones and longitudinal changes in CSF biomarkers and DaTscanTM uptake were not different by sex. Conclusion: Men showed higher self-assessed motor and non-motor burden of disease, with possible contributions from suboptimal dopaminergic therapeutic response in men. However, motor features of disease evaluated with clinician-based scales in the OFF medication state, as well as biological biomarkers do not show specific sex-related progression patterns.
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