The textile industry is a major contributor to global waste, with millions of tons of textiles being discarded annually. Material and energy recovery within circular economy offer sustainable solutions to this problem by extending the life cycle of textiles through repurposing, recycling, and upcycling. These initiatives not only reduce waste but also contribute to the reduction of the demand for virgin materials (i.e. cotton, wool), ultimately benefiting the environment and society. The circular economy approach, which aims to recreate environmental, economic, and societal value, is based on three key principles: waste reduction, material circulation, and ecological restoration. Given these difficulties, circularity incorporates the material recovery approach, which is focused on the conversion of waste into secondary raw resources. The goal of this notion is to extract more value from resources by prolonging final disposal as long as feasible. When a textile has outlived its functional life, material recovery is critical for returning the included materials or energy into the manufacturing cycle. The aim of this paper is to examine the material and energy recovery options of main raw materials used in the fashion industry while highlighting the need of close observation of the relation between circularity and material recovery, including the investigation of barriers to the transition towards a truly circular fashion industry. The final results refer to the main barriers of circular economy transition within the industry and a framework is proposed. These insights are useful for academia, engineers, policy makers and other key stakeholders for the clear understanding of the industry from within and highlight beyond circular economy targets, SDGs interactions with energy and material recovery of textile waste (SDG 7, SDG 11, SDG 12 etc.).
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