Valinomycin is a potent ionophore known for its ability to transport potassium ions across biological membranes. The study focuses on the hydroxylated analogues of valinomycin (HyVLMs) and compares their energy profiles and capabilities for transporting potassium ions across phospholipid membranes. Using metadynamics, we investigated the energy profiles of wild-type valinomycin (VLM_1) and its three hydroxylated analogues (VLM_2, VLM_3, and VLM_4). We observed that all analogues exhibited energy maxima in the centre of the membrane and preferred positions below the phospholipid heads. Furthermore, the entry barriers for membrane penetration were similar among the analogues, suggesting that the hydroxyl group did not significantly affect their passage through the membrane. Transition state calculations provided insights into the ability of valino-mycin analogues to capture potassium ions, with VLM_4 showing the lowest activation energy and VLM_2 dis-playing the highest. Our findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms of potassium transport by valinomycin analogues and highlight their potential as ionophores. The presence of the hydroxyl group is of particular importance because it paves the way for subsequent chemical modifications and the synthesis of new antiviral agents with reduced intrinsic toxicity.

Theoretical investigation of hydroxylated analogues of valinomycin as potassium transporter

Sessa, Lucia
;
Concilio, Simona;Marrafino, Francesco;Sarkar, Arkadeep;Piotto, Stefano
2023-01-01

Abstract

Valinomycin is a potent ionophore known for its ability to transport potassium ions across biological membranes. The study focuses on the hydroxylated analogues of valinomycin (HyVLMs) and compares their energy profiles and capabilities for transporting potassium ions across phospholipid membranes. Using metadynamics, we investigated the energy profiles of wild-type valinomycin (VLM_1) and its three hydroxylated analogues (VLM_2, VLM_3, and VLM_4). We observed that all analogues exhibited energy maxima in the centre of the membrane and preferred positions below the phospholipid heads. Furthermore, the entry barriers for membrane penetration were similar among the analogues, suggesting that the hydroxyl group did not significantly affect their passage through the membrane. Transition state calculations provided insights into the ability of valino-mycin analogues to capture potassium ions, with VLM_4 showing the lowest activation energy and VLM_2 dis-playing the highest. Our findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms of potassium transport by valinomycin analogues and highlight their potential as ionophores. The presence of the hydroxyl group is of particular importance because it paves the way for subsequent chemical modifications and the synthesis of new antiviral agents with reduced intrinsic toxicity.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4853705
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