Obesity, a complex and multifactorial disease influenced by genetic, environmental, and psychological factors, has reached epidemic proportions globally, posing a significant health challenge. In addition to its established association with cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes, obesity has been implicated as a risk factor for various cancers. However, the precise biological mechanisms linking obesity and cancer remain largely understood. Adipose tissue, an active endocrine organ, produces numerous hormones and bioactive molecules known as adipokines, which play a crucial role in metabolism, immune responses, and systemic inflammation. Notably, adiponectin (APN), the principal adipocyte secretory protein, exhibits reduced expression levels in obesity. In this scoping review, we explore and discuss the role of APN in influencing cancer in common malignancies, including lung, breast, colorectal, prostate, gastric, and endometrial cancers. Our review aims to emphasize the critical significance of investigating this field, as it holds great potential for the development of innovative treatment strategies that specifically target obesity-related malignancies. Furthermore, the implementation of more rigorous and comprehensive prevention and treatment policies for obesity is imperative in order to effectively mitigate the risk of associated diseases, such as cancer.
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