Atmospheric temperature is a key variable to detect and attribute climate change. Due to the relative sparseness of ground-based observations and heterogeneity of satellite data, global atmospheric reanalysis products are considered valuable datasets for studying and monitoring the climate, since these usually ensure spatially complete and continuous temporal coverage. Consequently, evaluating differences among the existing reanalyses is key to identifying inconsistencies. To this aim, the current study intercompares the climatological mean, variability, and linear trends for upper air temperature provided from four recent atmospheric reanalysis products (ERA5, ERA-Interim, MERRA-2, and JRA-55) The Reanalysis Multi-Model Ensemble-mean (RMME) is used as a comparator. Radiosonde observations are included for comparison on the regional scale (tropics). The results reveal that all evaluated reanalyses provide a consistent reproduction of the upper-air temperature profile. Temperature differences from RMME within +/- 0.25 K are found in both the troposphere and lower stratosphere, except for a few specific regions. Larger differences (>+/- 1.5 K) and discrepancies among the datasets are found in the upper stratosphere. Agreement between reanalyses increased after 1998. Differences in the temperature time series and seasonal cycle at the regional scales are smaller in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes than in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. A robust cooling trend in the lower stratosphere during the period of largest ozone depletion (1980-1997) and a warming trend in the troposphere for the period 1998-2018 are clearly found, at the global level, in all the datasets. Temperature trends and variability in the tropics are consistent in all reanalysis datasets with the homogenized radiosonde records from the lower to middle troposphere and in the lower stratosphere. However, large differences are found in the upper troposphere, tropical tropopause layer (TTL), and middle stratosphere. The well-known temperature variability in the lower stratosphere associated with Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) is captured in both reanalyses and observational datasets. Among the reanalyses, ERA5 shows the smallest temperature difference with respect to homogenized upper-air radiosoundings records.

Intercomparison of Atmospheric Upper-Air Temperature From Recent Global Reanalysis Datasets

Madonna, F
Methodology
;
Caporaso, L;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Atmospheric temperature is a key variable to detect and attribute climate change. Due to the relative sparseness of ground-based observations and heterogeneity of satellite data, global atmospheric reanalysis products are considered valuable datasets for studying and monitoring the climate, since these usually ensure spatially complete and continuous temporal coverage. Consequently, evaluating differences among the existing reanalyses is key to identifying inconsistencies. To this aim, the current study intercompares the climatological mean, variability, and linear trends for upper air temperature provided from four recent atmospheric reanalysis products (ERA5, ERA-Interim, MERRA-2, and JRA-55) The Reanalysis Multi-Model Ensemble-mean (RMME) is used as a comparator. Radiosonde observations are included for comparison on the regional scale (tropics). The results reveal that all evaluated reanalyses provide a consistent reproduction of the upper-air temperature profile. Temperature differences from RMME within +/- 0.25 K are found in both the troposphere and lower stratosphere, except for a few specific regions. Larger differences (>+/- 1.5 K) and discrepancies among the datasets are found in the upper stratosphere. Agreement between reanalyses increased after 1998. Differences in the temperature time series and seasonal cycle at the regional scales are smaller in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes than in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. A robust cooling trend in the lower stratosphere during the period of largest ozone depletion (1980-1997) and a warming trend in the troposphere for the period 1998-2018 are clearly found, at the global level, in all the datasets. Temperature trends and variability in the tropics are consistent in all reanalysis datasets with the homogenized radiosonde records from the lower to middle troposphere and in the lower stratosphere. However, large differences are found in the upper troposphere, tropical tropopause layer (TTL), and middle stratosphere. The well-known temperature variability in the lower stratosphere associated with Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) is captured in both reanalyses and observational datasets. Among the reanalyses, ERA5 shows the smallest temperature difference with respect to homogenized upper-air radiosoundings records.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4854460
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