: The use of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor inhibitors (VEGFi) has become prevalent in the field of medicine, given the high incidence of various pathological conditions necessitating VEGF inhibition within the general population. These conditions encompass a range of advanced neoplasms, such as colorectal cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cancer, ovarian cancer, and others, along with ocular diseases. The utilization of VEGFi is not without potential risks and adverse effects, requiring healthcare providers to be well-prepared for identification and management. VEGFi can be broadly categorized into two groups: antibodies or chimeric proteins that specifically target VEGF (bevacizumab, ramucirumab, aflibercept, ranibizumab, and brolucizumab) and non-selective and selective small molecules (sunitinib, sorafenib, cabozantinib, lenvatinib, regorafenib, etc.) designed to impede intracellular signaling of the VEGF receptor (RTKi, receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors). The presentation and mechanisms of adverse effects resulting from VEGFi depend primarily on this distinction and the route of drug administration (systemic or intra-vitreal). This review provides a thorough examination of the causes, recognition, management, and preventive strategies for VEGFi toxicities with the goal of offering support to oncologists in both clinical practice and the design of clinical trials.
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