Background: Left atrial (LA) evaluation includes volumetric and functional parameters with an abundance of diagnostic and prognostic implications. Solid normal reference ranges are compulsory for accurate interpretation in individual patients, but previous studies have yielded mixed conclusions regarding the effects of age, sex, and/or race. The present report from the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography study focuses on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) measures of LA structure and function, with subgroup analysis by age, sex, and race. Methods: Transthoracic 2D and 3D echocardiographic images were obtained in 1,765 healthy individuals (901 men, 864 women) evenly distributed among age subgroups: 18 to 40 years (n = 745), 41 to 65 years (n = 618), and >65 years (n = 402); the racial distribution was 38.4% white, 39.9% Asian, and 9.7% black. Images were analyzed using dedicated LA analysis software to measure LA volumes and phasic function from 3D volume and 2D strain curves. Results: Three-dimensional maximum and minimum LA volumes adjusted for body surface area were nearly identical for men and women, but women demonstrated higher 3D total and passive emptying fractions (EFs). Two-dimensional reservoir strain was similar for both sexes. Age was associated with an incremental rise in LA volumes alongside characteristic shifts in functional indices. Total 2D EF and reservoir and conduit strain varied inversely with age, counteracted by higher booster strain, with a greater magnitude of effect in women. Active 3D EF was significantly higher, while total and passive EFs decreased with age. Interracial differences were noted in LA volumes, without substantial differences in functional indices. Conclusion: Although similar normal values for LA volumes and strain can be applied to both sexes, meaningful differences in LA size occur with aging. Indices of function also shift with age, with a compensatory rise in booster function, which may serve to counteract observed lower total and passive EFs. Defining age associated normal values may help differentiate age-associated "healthy"LA aging from pathologic processes. (J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2022;35:154-64.)

Normal Values of Left Atrial Size and Function and the Impact of Age: Results of the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography Study

Bellino, Michele;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Left atrial (LA) evaluation includes volumetric and functional parameters with an abundance of diagnostic and prognostic implications. Solid normal reference ranges are compulsory for accurate interpretation in individual patients, but previous studies have yielded mixed conclusions regarding the effects of age, sex, and/or race. The present report from the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography study focuses on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) measures of LA structure and function, with subgroup analysis by age, sex, and race. Methods: Transthoracic 2D and 3D echocardiographic images were obtained in 1,765 healthy individuals (901 men, 864 women) evenly distributed among age subgroups: 18 to 40 years (n = 745), 41 to 65 years (n = 618), and >65 years (n = 402); the racial distribution was 38.4% white, 39.9% Asian, and 9.7% black. Images were analyzed using dedicated LA analysis software to measure LA volumes and phasic function from 3D volume and 2D strain curves. Results: Three-dimensional maximum and minimum LA volumes adjusted for body surface area were nearly identical for men and women, but women demonstrated higher 3D total and passive emptying fractions (EFs). Two-dimensional reservoir strain was similar for both sexes. Age was associated with an incremental rise in LA volumes alongside characteristic shifts in functional indices. Total 2D EF and reservoir and conduit strain varied inversely with age, counteracted by higher booster strain, with a greater magnitude of effect in women. Active 3D EF was significantly higher, while total and passive EFs decreased with age. Interracial differences were noted in LA volumes, without substantial differences in functional indices. Conclusion: Although similar normal values for LA volumes and strain can be applied to both sexes, meaningful differences in LA size occur with aging. Indices of function also shift with age, with a compensatory rise in booster function, which may serve to counteract observed lower total and passive EFs. Defining age associated normal values may help differentiate age-associated "healthy"LA aging from pathologic processes. (J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2022;35:154-64.)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4867597
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