: Understanding the microbiological profiles of peri-implant conditions is crucial for developing effective preventive and therapeutic strategies. This narrative review analyzes the microbial profiles associated with healthy peri-implant sites, peri-implant mucositis, and peri-implantitis, along with related microbiological sampling and analyses. Healthy peri-implant sites are predominantly colonized by Streptococcus, Rothia, Neisseria, and Corynebacterium species, in addition to Gram-positive cocci and facultatively anaerobic rods, forming a stable community that prevents pathogenic colonization and maintains microbial balance. In contrast, peri-implant mucositis shows increased microbial diversity, including both health-associated and pathogenic bacteria such as red and orange complex bacteria, contributing to early tissue inflammation. Peri-implantitis is characterized by even greater microbial diversity and a complex pathogenic biofilm. Predominant pathogens include Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and unique species like Filifactor alocis and Fretibacterium fastidiosum. Additionally, less common species such as Staphylococcus and Enterobacteriaceae, contributing to disease progression through biofilm formation and increased inflammatory response, along with EBV and human cytomegalovirus with a still not defined role, and Candida albicans contribute to disease progression through biofilm formation, immune modulation, and synergistic inter-kingdom interactions. Future research should standardize diagnostic criteria, employ advanced molecular techniques, integrate microbial data with clinical factors, and highlight inter-kingdom interactions.

Microbiota of Peri-Implant Healthy Tissues, Peri-Implant Mucositis, and Peri-Implantitis: A Comprehensive Review

Di Spirito, Federica;Giordano, Francesco;Di Palo, Maria Pia;D'Ambrosio, Francesco;Scognamiglio, Bruno;Sangiovanni, Giuseppe;Caggiano, Mario;Gasparro, Roberta
2024-01-01

Abstract

: Understanding the microbiological profiles of peri-implant conditions is crucial for developing effective preventive and therapeutic strategies. This narrative review analyzes the microbial profiles associated with healthy peri-implant sites, peri-implant mucositis, and peri-implantitis, along with related microbiological sampling and analyses. Healthy peri-implant sites are predominantly colonized by Streptococcus, Rothia, Neisseria, and Corynebacterium species, in addition to Gram-positive cocci and facultatively anaerobic rods, forming a stable community that prevents pathogenic colonization and maintains microbial balance. In contrast, peri-implant mucositis shows increased microbial diversity, including both health-associated and pathogenic bacteria such as red and orange complex bacteria, contributing to early tissue inflammation. Peri-implantitis is characterized by even greater microbial diversity and a complex pathogenic biofilm. Predominant pathogens include Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and unique species like Filifactor alocis and Fretibacterium fastidiosum. Additionally, less common species such as Staphylococcus and Enterobacteriaceae, contributing to disease progression through biofilm formation and increased inflammatory response, along with EBV and human cytomegalovirus with a still not defined role, and Candida albicans contribute to disease progression through biofilm formation, immune modulation, and synergistic inter-kingdom interactions. Future research should standardize diagnostic criteria, employ advanced molecular techniques, integrate microbial data with clinical factors, and highlight inter-kingdom interactions.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4869832
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact