This paper presents a specific 3D computational fluid dynamics model to quantify the effects of the combustion of asphalt road pavement on user safety in the event of a fire in a bi-directional road tunnel. Since the consequences on tunnel users and/or rescue teams might be affected not only by the tunnel geometry but also by the type of ventilation and traffic flow, the environmental conditions caused by the fire in the tunnel under natural or longitudinal mechanical ventilation, as well as congested traffic conditions, were more especially investigated. The simulation results showed that the combustion of the asphalt pavement in the event of a 100 MW fire, compared to the case of a non-combustible road pavement, caused (i) an increase in smoke concentrations; (ii) a greater number of users exposed to the risk of incapacity to escape from the tunnel; (iii) a more difficult situation for the firefighters entering the tunnel upstream of the fire source in the case of natural ventilation; (iv) a higher probability of the domino effect for vehicles queued downstream of the fire when the tunnel is mechanically ventilated.

CFD Simulation to Assess the Effects of Asphalt Pavement Combustion on User Safety in the Event of a Fire in Road Tunnels

Ciro Caliendo
Supervision
;
Isidoro Russo
Software
2024-01-01

Abstract

This paper presents a specific 3D computational fluid dynamics model to quantify the effects of the combustion of asphalt road pavement on user safety in the event of a fire in a bi-directional road tunnel. Since the consequences on tunnel users and/or rescue teams might be affected not only by the tunnel geometry but also by the type of ventilation and traffic flow, the environmental conditions caused by the fire in the tunnel under natural or longitudinal mechanical ventilation, as well as congested traffic conditions, were more especially investigated. The simulation results showed that the combustion of the asphalt pavement in the event of a 100 MW fire, compared to the case of a non-combustible road pavement, caused (i) an increase in smoke concentrations; (ii) a greater number of users exposed to the risk of incapacity to escape from the tunnel; (iii) a more difficult situation for the firefighters entering the tunnel upstream of the fire source in the case of natural ventilation; (iv) a higher probability of the domino effect for vehicles queued downstream of the fire when the tunnel is mechanically ventilated.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4870631
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