Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is one of the most frequent complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Pre-transplant CMV-positive recipient serostatus is the most significant independent variable for viral reactivation. Oral valgancyclovir (VGCV) is a prodrug of intravenous gancyclovir (GCV) and is an effective and safety alternative for the management of CMV reactivation prophylaxis and preemptive therapy. However, VGCV at standard dose (900 mg twice a day) increases risk of myelosuppression in HSCT recipients. The efficacy of low dose (LD, 450 mg daily) oral VGCV was retrospectively evaluated in 30 allogeneic HLA-matched related patients and 2 unrelated, with a median age of 40 years (range, 18-59) and a median follow-up of 30 months (range, 3-56). Primary diseases were acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n=19), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=4), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (n=3), multiple myeloma (n=3) and myelodysplastic syndrome (n=3). Seventeen of twenty-three acute leukemia (AL) patients were transplanted in first complete remission (CR), while the remaining (n=6) were transplanted in 2nd CR. Five patients suffered from AML secondary to long-lasting MDS (n=3) or Hodgkin disease and breast cancer (n=2). Based upon CMV serostatus (D/R, donor/recipient), thirty (94%) of HSCT recipients were classified as high risk (D-/R+ = 3 and D+/R+ = 27) for CMV reactivation and only 6% as low risk (D-/R- = 2); none of the patients was in the intermediate risk group (D+/R-). Fifteen and 17 patients received a myeloablative and RIC regimens, respectively. Twenty-one patients received GvHD prophylaxis with cyclosporin A (CsA, 1 mg/kg intravenously from day -1 to +21, then 8 mg/kg orally for at least 6 months) and short-course methotrexate (MTX, 10 mg/kg on days +1, +3, +6 and +11). The others (n=11) received CsA with MTX and antithymocyte globulin (ATG, as a part of the conditioning regimen at 10 mg/kg at days -3, -2 and -1). According to the Glucksberg scoring system, thirteen patients experienced grade I-II and two grade III-IV acute GvHD, while 7 patients developed limited (n=6, 18%) and extensive (n=3, 10%) chronic GvHD. Starting from time of engraftment, LD oral VGCV was given prophylactically for at least 6 months. CMV infection was monitored weekly using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in high risk seropositive recipients and we started preemptive therapy when the peak viral load exceeding 1000 copies/mL in two consecutive plasma samples. Six patients (4 early and 2 late) developed a positive PCR after a mean of 59 days post-HSCT successfully treated with 900 mg of VGCV twice a day for at least when PCR negative (in a median of 12 days). Only one patient developed late fatal gastrointestinal CMV disease. Indeed, asymptomatic early and late CMV-DNA PCR reactivation occurred only in 17% (n=5) of high risk seropositive HSCT recipients, in contrast to 37% and 18% of early and late CMV reactivation observed in matched gender, disease phase, graft source and CMV serostatus cohort of 32 HSCT recipients treated prophylactically with oral acyclovir (ACV, 15 mg/kg daily) and high dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG, 0.4 gr/kg weekly for at least 6 months) . Seven patients presented hematological toxicity do not requiring drug discontinuation. The rate of non CMV-related infections was 25% and was similar in both groups with and without CMV reactivation. At the end of the follow-up, 18 of 32 (56%) patients were alive with a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 2-56). Relapsed-related mortality was 20%, transplant-related mortality was 9% and did not differ between group with and without CMV reactivation. Our data provide evidence that LD-VGCV is safe and effective as CMV reactivation prophylaxis in allogeneic HSCT recipients. These results require further validation in randomized studies.

Cytomegalovirus reactivation prophylaxis with low dose valgancyclovir after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Giudice V;SELLERI, Carmine
2013

Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is one of the most frequent complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Pre-transplant CMV-positive recipient serostatus is the most significant independent variable for viral reactivation. Oral valgancyclovir (VGCV) is a prodrug of intravenous gancyclovir (GCV) and is an effective and safety alternative for the management of CMV reactivation prophylaxis and preemptive therapy. However, VGCV at standard dose (900 mg twice a day) increases risk of myelosuppression in HSCT recipients. The efficacy of low dose (LD, 450 mg daily) oral VGCV was retrospectively evaluated in 30 allogeneic HLA-matched related patients and 2 unrelated, with a median age of 40 years (range, 18-59) and a median follow-up of 30 months (range, 3-56). Primary diseases were acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n=19), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=4), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (n=3), multiple myeloma (n=3) and myelodysplastic syndrome (n=3). Seventeen of twenty-three acute leukemia (AL) patients were transplanted in first complete remission (CR), while the remaining (n=6) were transplanted in 2nd CR. Five patients suffered from AML secondary to long-lasting MDS (n=3) or Hodgkin disease and breast cancer (n=2). Based upon CMV serostatus (D/R, donor/recipient), thirty (94%) of HSCT recipients were classified as high risk (D-/R+ = 3 and D+/R+ = 27) for CMV reactivation and only 6% as low risk (D-/R- = 2); none of the patients was in the intermediate risk group (D+/R-). Fifteen and 17 patients received a myeloablative and RIC regimens, respectively. Twenty-one patients received GvHD prophylaxis with cyclosporin A (CsA, 1 mg/kg intravenously from day -1 to +21, then 8 mg/kg orally for at least 6 months) and short-course methotrexate (MTX, 10 mg/kg on days +1, +3, +6 and +11). The others (n=11) received CsA with MTX and antithymocyte globulin (ATG, as a part of the conditioning regimen at 10 mg/kg at days -3, -2 and -1). According to the Glucksberg scoring system, thirteen patients experienced grade I-II and two grade III-IV acute GvHD, while 7 patients developed limited (n=6, 18%) and extensive (n=3, 10%) chronic GvHD. Starting from time of engraftment, LD oral VGCV was given prophylactically for at least 6 months. CMV infection was monitored weekly using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in high risk seropositive recipients and we started preemptive therapy when the peak viral load exceeding 1000 copies/mL in two consecutive plasma samples. Six patients (4 early and 2 late) developed a positive PCR after a mean of 59 days post-HSCT successfully treated with 900 mg of VGCV twice a day for at least when PCR negative (in a median of 12 days). Only one patient developed late fatal gastrointestinal CMV disease. Indeed, asymptomatic early and late CMV-DNA PCR reactivation occurred only in 17% (n=5) of high risk seropositive HSCT recipients, in contrast to 37% and 18% of early and late CMV reactivation observed in matched gender, disease phase, graft source and CMV serostatus cohort of 32 HSCT recipients treated prophylactically with oral acyclovir (ACV, 15 mg/kg daily) and high dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG, 0.4 gr/kg weekly for at least 6 months) . Seven patients presented hematological toxicity do not requiring drug discontinuation. The rate of non CMV-related infections was 25% and was similar in both groups with and without CMV reactivation. At the end of the follow-up, 18 of 32 (56%) patients were alive with a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 2-56). Relapsed-related mortality was 20%, transplant-related mortality was 9% and did not differ between group with and without CMV reactivation. Our data provide evidence that LD-VGCV is safe and effective as CMV reactivation prophylaxis in allogeneic HSCT recipients. These results require further validation in randomized studies.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11386/4242253
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