The region 21q22 is considered crucial for the pathogenesis of both Down syndrome (DS) and the partial monosomy 21q syndrome. Haploinsufficiency of the RUNX-1 gene, mapping at 21q22 is responsible for a platelet disorder and causes predisposition to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We describe a 3-year-old girl with mental retardation, congenital heart malformation, and subtle dysmorphic facial features. The patient developed thrombocytopenia when she was 2 years old. Bone marrow smear led to the diagnosis of myelodysplasia. Prenatal karyotyping had shown chromosome 21 pericentric inversion. Postnatally the array-CGH revealed duplication at bands 21q11.2-21q21.1 and a simultaneous deletion involving the region 21q22.13- 21q22.3. RUNX-1 mRNA levels analyzed in patient's skin fibroblasts were reduced. In this child the monosomy of the region 21q22 likely had the main role in determining the phenotype. Although the RUNX-1 gene is localized outside the deleted region, we speculate that RUNX-1 reduced expression, is probably due to the deletion of regulatory factors and caused the hematologic disorder in the patient. The present report underlines also the importance of array-CGH in characterizing patients with a complex phenotype

Mental retardation, congenital heart malformation, and myelodysplasia in a patient with a complex chromosomal rearrangement involving the critical region 21q22

Melis D
;
2011

Abstract

The region 21q22 is considered crucial for the pathogenesis of both Down syndrome (DS) and the partial monosomy 21q syndrome. Haploinsufficiency of the RUNX-1 gene, mapping at 21q22 is responsible for a platelet disorder and causes predisposition to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We describe a 3-year-old girl with mental retardation, congenital heart malformation, and subtle dysmorphic facial features. The patient developed thrombocytopenia when she was 2 years old. Bone marrow smear led to the diagnosis of myelodysplasia. Prenatal karyotyping had shown chromosome 21 pericentric inversion. Postnatally the array-CGH revealed duplication at bands 21q11.2-21q21.1 and a simultaneous deletion involving the region 21q22.13- 21q22.3. RUNX-1 mRNA levels analyzed in patient's skin fibroblasts were reduced. In this child the monosomy of the region 21q22 likely had the main role in determining the phenotype. Although the RUNX-1 gene is localized outside the deleted region, we speculate that RUNX-1 reduced expression, is probably due to the deletion of regulatory factors and caused the hematologic disorder in the patient. The present report underlines also the importance of array-CGH in characterizing patients with a complex phenotype
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11386/4730035
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