Objective: The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the influence of antibiotics on the development of alveolitis after tooth extractions. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of patients who had erupted tooth extractions in 3 centers. The patients’ medical records were collected for several parameters. Moreover, use of antibiotics was evaluated. The primary outcome was the development of alveolitis during the postoperative period. The secondary outcome measure was the possible associations between alveolitis and other patients’ characteristics. Results: A total of 1579 patient charts were screened. The patients enrolled in the study were 418 (159 males and 259 females). Alveolitis was reported for 12 extraction sites (2.87%). Six were in the group of patients that received antibiotics (2.14% out of 280 patients treated with antibiotics), and six were in the group of patients that did not receive antibiotics (4.35% out of 138 patients not receiving antibiotics). None of patient-level parameters showed any significant association with the development of alveolitis. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study showed that the use of antibiotics after erupted tooth extractions is not useful in preventing alveolitis. Larger, prospective, and randomized studies are needed before incorporating these findings into the daily clinical practice.
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