Aptamers or chemical antibodies are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that bind proteins and small molecules with high affinity and specificity by recognizing tertiary or quaternary structures as antibodies. Aptamers can be easily produced in vitro through a process known as systemic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) or a cell-based SELEX procedure. Aptamers and modified aptamers, such as slow, off-rate, modified aptamers (SOMAmers), can bind to target molecules with less polar and more hydrophobic interactions showing slower dissociation rates, higher stability, and resistance to nuclease degradation. Aptamers and SOMAmers are largely employed for multiplex high-throughput proteomics analysis with high reproducibility and reliability, for tumor cell detection by flow cytometry or microscopy for research and clinical purposes. In addition, aptamers are increasingly used for novel drug delivery systems specifically targeting tumor cells, and as new anticancer molecules. In this review, we summarize current preclinical and clinical applications of aptamers in malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases.

Aptamers and Antisense Oligonucleotides for Diagnosis and Treatment of Hematological Diseases

Giudice, Valentina;Mensitieri, Francesca;Izzo, Viviana;Filippelli, Amelia;Selleri, Carmine
2020

Abstract

Aptamers or chemical antibodies are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that bind proteins and small molecules with high affinity and specificity by recognizing tertiary or quaternary structures as antibodies. Aptamers can be easily produced in vitro through a process known as systemic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) or a cell-based SELEX procedure. Aptamers and modified aptamers, such as slow, off-rate, modified aptamers (SOMAmers), can bind to target molecules with less polar and more hydrophobic interactions showing slower dissociation rates, higher stability, and resistance to nuclease degradation. Aptamers and SOMAmers are largely employed for multiplex high-throughput proteomics analysis with high reproducibility and reliability, for tumor cell detection by flow cytometry or microscopy for research and clinical purposes. In addition, aptamers are increasingly used for novel drug delivery systems specifically targeting tumor cells, and as new anticancer molecules. In this review, we summarize current preclinical and clinical applications of aptamers in malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4743523
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