Fluoropyrimidines (FP) are mainly metabolised by dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), encoded by the DPYD gene. FP pharmacogenetics, including four DPYD polymorphisms (DPYD-PGx), is recommended to tailor the FP-based chemotherapy. These polymorphisms increase the risk of severe toxicity; thus, the DPYD-PGx should be performed prior to starting FP. Other factors influence FP safety, therefore phenotyping methods, such as the measurement of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) clearance and DPD activity, could complement the DPYD-PGx. We describe a case series of patients in whom we performed DPYD-PGx (by real-time PCR), 5-FU clearance and a dihydrouracil/uracil ratio (as the phenotyping analysis) and a continuous clinical monitoring. Patients who had already experienced severe toxicity were then identified as carriers of DPYD variants. The plasmatic dihydrouracil/uracil ratio (by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)) ranged between 1.77 and 7.38. 5-FU clearance (by ultra-HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry) was measured in 3/11 patients. In one of them, it reduced after the 5-FU dosage was halved; in the other case, it remained high despite a drastic dosage reduction. Moreover, we performed a systematic review on genotyping/phenotyping combinations used as predictive factors of FP safety. Measuring the plasmatic 5-FU clearance and/or dihydrouracil/uracil (UH2/U) ratio could improve the predictive potential of DPYD-PGx. The upfront DPYD-PGx combined with clinical monitoring and feasible phenotyping method is essential to optimising FP-based chemotherapy.

A genotyping/phenotyping approach with careful clinical monitoring to manage the fluoropyrimidines-based therapy: Clinical cases and systematic review of the literature

Conti V.;De Bellis E.;Manzo V.
;
Sabbatino F.;Iannello F.;Izzo V.;Charlier B.;Stefanelli B.;Torsiello M.;Iannaccone T.;Coglianese A.;Colucci F.;Pepe S.;Filippelli A.
2020

Abstract

Fluoropyrimidines (FP) are mainly metabolised by dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), encoded by the DPYD gene. FP pharmacogenetics, including four DPYD polymorphisms (DPYD-PGx), is recommended to tailor the FP-based chemotherapy. These polymorphisms increase the risk of severe toxicity; thus, the DPYD-PGx should be performed prior to starting FP. Other factors influence FP safety, therefore phenotyping methods, such as the measurement of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) clearance and DPD activity, could complement the DPYD-PGx. We describe a case series of patients in whom we performed DPYD-PGx (by real-time PCR), 5-FU clearance and a dihydrouracil/uracil ratio (as the phenotyping analysis) and a continuous clinical monitoring. Patients who had already experienced severe toxicity were then identified as carriers of DPYD variants. The plasmatic dihydrouracil/uracil ratio (by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)) ranged between 1.77 and 7.38. 5-FU clearance (by ultra-HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry) was measured in 3/11 patients. In one of them, it reduced after the 5-FU dosage was halved; in the other case, it remained high despite a drastic dosage reduction. Moreover, we performed a systematic review on genotyping/phenotyping combinations used as predictive factors of FP safety. Measuring the plasmatic 5-FU clearance and/or dihydrouracil/uracil (UH2/U) ratio could improve the predictive potential of DPYD-PGx. The upfront DPYD-PGx combined with clinical monitoring and feasible phenotyping method is essential to optimising FP-based chemotherapy.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4754441
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