We have developed an appropriate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for assessing the exposure to risk of tunnel users during their evacuation process in the event of fire. The effects on escaping users, which can be caused by fire from different types of vehicles located in various longitudinal positions within a one-way tunnel with natural ventilation only and length less than 1 km are shown. Simulated fires, in terms of maximum Heat Release Rate (HRR) are: 8, 30, 50, and 100 MW for two cars, a bus, and two types of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs), respectively. With reference to environmental conditions (i.e., temperatures, radiant heat fluxes, visibility distances, and CO and CO2 concentrations) along the evacuation path, the results prove that these are always within the limits acceptable for user safety. The exposure to toxic gases and heat also confirms that the tunnel users can safely evacuate. The evacuation time was found to be higher when fire was related to the bus, which is due to a major pre-movement time required for leaving the vehicle. The findings show that mechanical ventilation is not necessary in the case of the tunnel investigated. It is to be emphasized that our modeling might represent a reference in investigating the effects of natural ventilation in tunnels.

Risk Analysis of Road Tunnels: A Computational Fluid Dynamic Model for Assessing the Effects of Natural Ventilation

Ciro Caliendo
Supervision
;
Gianluca Genovese;Isidoro Russo
2021-01-01

Abstract

We have developed an appropriate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for assessing the exposure to risk of tunnel users during their evacuation process in the event of fire. The effects on escaping users, which can be caused by fire from different types of vehicles located in various longitudinal positions within a one-way tunnel with natural ventilation only and length less than 1 km are shown. Simulated fires, in terms of maximum Heat Release Rate (HRR) are: 8, 30, 50, and 100 MW for two cars, a bus, and two types of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs), respectively. With reference to environmental conditions (i.e., temperatures, radiant heat fluxes, visibility distances, and CO and CO2 concentrations) along the evacuation path, the results prove that these are always within the limits acceptable for user safety. The exposure to toxic gases and heat also confirms that the tunnel users can safely evacuate. The evacuation time was found to be higher when fire was related to the bus, which is due to a major pre-movement time required for leaving the vehicle. The findings show that mechanical ventilation is not necessary in the case of the tunnel investigated. It is to be emphasized that our modeling might represent a reference in investigating the effects of natural ventilation in tunnels.
2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4756686
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