With the emergence of COVID-19, mobile health applications have increasingly become crucial in contact tracing, information dissemination, and pandemic control in general. Apps warn users if they have been close to an infected person for sufficient time, and therefore potentially at risk. The distance measurement accuracy heavily affects the probability estimation of being infected. Most of these applications make use of the electromagnetic field produced by Bluetooth Low Energy technology to estimate the distance. Nevertheless, radio interference derived from numerous factors, such as crowding, obstacles, and user activity can lead to wrong distance estimation, and, in turn, to wrong decisions. Besides, most of the social distance-keeping criteria recognized worldwide plan to keep a different distance based on the activity of the person and on the surrounding environment. In this study, in order to enhance the performance of the COVID-19 tracking apps, a human activity classifier based on Convolutional Deep Neural Network is provided. In particular, the raw data coming from the accelerometer sensor of a smartphone are arranged to form an image including several channels (HAR-Image), which is used as fingerprints of the in-progress activity that can be used as an additional input by tracking applications. Experimental results, obtained by analyzing real data, have shown that the HAR-Images are effective features for human activity recognition. Indeed, the results on the k-fold cross-validation and obtained by using a real dataset achieved an accuracy very close to 100%.

Enhancing COVID-19 tracking apps with human activity recognition using a deep convolutional neural network and HAR-images

D'Angelo, Gianni
;
Palmieri, Francesco
2021-01-01

Abstract

With the emergence of COVID-19, mobile health applications have increasingly become crucial in contact tracing, information dissemination, and pandemic control in general. Apps warn users if they have been close to an infected person for sufficient time, and therefore potentially at risk. The distance measurement accuracy heavily affects the probability estimation of being infected. Most of these applications make use of the electromagnetic field produced by Bluetooth Low Energy technology to estimate the distance. Nevertheless, radio interference derived from numerous factors, such as crowding, obstacles, and user activity can lead to wrong distance estimation, and, in turn, to wrong decisions. Besides, most of the social distance-keeping criteria recognized worldwide plan to keep a different distance based on the activity of the person and on the surrounding environment. In this study, in order to enhance the performance of the COVID-19 tracking apps, a human activity classifier based on Convolutional Deep Neural Network is provided. In particular, the raw data coming from the accelerometer sensor of a smartphone are arranged to form an image including several channels (HAR-Image), which is used as fingerprints of the in-progress activity that can be used as an additional input by tracking applications. Experimental results, obtained by analyzing real data, have shown that the HAR-Images are effective features for human activity recognition. Indeed, the results on the k-fold cross-validation and obtained by using a real dataset achieved an accuracy very close to 100%.
2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4764213
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