Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is a lymphoproliferative disorder of mature T or NK cells frequently associated with autoimmune disorders and other hematological conditions, such as myelodysplastic syndromes. Immunophenotype of LGL cells is similar to that of effector memory CD8+ T cells with T-cell receptor (TCR) clonality defined by molecular and/or flow cytometric analysis. Vβ usage by flow cytometry can identify clonal TCR rearrangements at the protein level, and is fast, sensitive, and almost always available in every Hematology Center. Moreover, Vβ usage can be associated with immunophenotypic characterization of LGL clone in a multiparametric staining, and clonal kinetics can be easily monitored during treatment and follow-up. Finally, Vβ usage by flow cytometry might identify LGL clones silently underlying other hematological conditions, and routine characterization of Vβ skewing might identify recurrent TCR rearrangements that might trigger aberrant immune responses during hematological or autoimmune conditions.
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