Background: The effects of kidney transplantation on male sexual function are controversial. Aim: To evaluate the impact of kidney transplantation on erectile and ejaculatory function and to assess a possible correlation between some selected characteristics of patients and their erectile and ejaculatory function after renal transplantation. Methods: An observational retrospective analysis was conducted on male patients who had undergone kidney transplantation from January 2009 to April 2019. A prospectively maintained database was used to collect all data. Patients were evaluated before kidney transplant and 6 and 12 months after kidney transplant. Male patients undergoing renal transplantation for any cause who were sexually active with a stable partner were included in the study. Outcomes: The main outcome measures included the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15) and the 4-item version of Male Sexual Health Quality–Ejaculation Disorders (MSHQ-EjD Short Form) questionnaires. The first 3 questions of the MSHQ-EjD Short Form were used to assess the ejaculatory function, whereas the fourth question was used to evaluate the ejaculation bother. Results: A total of 95 patients were eligible in the study. The evaluation of sexual function was available in 56 patients (58.9%). Mean IIEF-15 significantly decreased at 6 months (P <.001) remaining unchanged at 12 months (P =.228). Mean MSHQ-EjD Short Form (1–3) significantly decreased at 6-month follow-up (P <.001) and at 12-month follow-up (P =.024). Mean MSHQ-EjD Short Form (4) was significantly increased compared with the baseline at both 6 and 12 months (P <.05). IIEF-15 was significantly related to the MSHQ-EjD Short Form at 6-month and 12-month follow-up (P <.001). Age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, pretransplantation testosterone, time for transplantation, baseline IIEF-15, and baseline MSHQ-EjD Short Form (1–3) were significantly associated (P <.05) with both IIEF-15 and the MSHQ-EjD Short Form (1–3) at 6-month and 12-month follow-up after kidney transplantation. Clinical Implications: Improvement of knowledge regarding the effects of kidney transplantation on sexual function and about the patient characteristics related to sexual health after transplantation. Strength & Limitations: This is the first article that analyzes in depth the ejaculatory function in patients who had undergone kidney transplantation assessing ejaculation with a validated questionnaire. The main limitation is the retrospective design of the study. Conclusion: Kidney transplantation appears to have a negative impact on sexual health, significantly worsening both erectile and ejaculatory functions. Age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, pretransplantation testosterone levels, time for transplantation, as well as erectile and ejaculatory function before transplant were significantly related to erectile and ejaculatory functions after renal transplantation. Spirito L, Manfredi C, Carrano R, et al. Impact of Kidney Transplantation on Male Sexual Function: Results from a Ten-Year Retrospective Study. J Sex Med 2020;17:2191–2197.
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