Background and Objectives: Laparoscopy is the pre-ferred method when operating in the abdomen. In this study, we evaluated systemic and morphological peritoneal cytokine modifications (RANTES/CCL5 and MCP-1/ CCL2) due to CO2 pneumoperitoneum in rats. Methods: Twenty-five prepubertal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups. Pneumoperitoneum lasting 30 minutes, was induced with a flow of 0.5 L/min, in two groups (S1 and S2, n = 20), at a P/CO2 of 6 and 10 mm Hg, respectively. In the control group (C, n = 5), only anesthesia was carried out. All animals were sacrificed after 24 hours. The serum of the rats was collected for ELISA, and the levels of the cytokines RANTES and MCP-1 were investigated. An immunohistochemical analysis of RANTES and MCP-1 was performed on samples of the peritoneum, and the morphological evaluation was conducted with a blinded evaluation by two independent, experienced pathologists by using a grading system (0, 1+, 2+, 3+: no, faint, moderate, and strong reactivity, respectively). Results: RANTES mean levels were significantly different in the S1, S2, and C groups (70.3 ± 2.26, 58.23 ± 4.32, 29.66 ± 4.03, respectively, P = .0001). The levels of MCP-1 were 32.1 ± 1.63 in the S1 group, 27.0 ± 9.26 in the S2 group, and 16.4 ± 9.55 in the C group (P = .159). Normal control peritoneum showed little reactivity, whereas a moderate to strong cytoplasmic reaction to anti-CCL5/CCL2 antibodies was observed in mesothelial and inflammatory cells in the S1 and S2 groups. Conclusion: CO2 pneumoperitoneum evokes an inflammatory response by modifying plasma RANTES levels and peritoneal CCL5/CCL2 expression.
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