Background: ZFYVE19 (Zinc Finger FYVE-Type Containing 19) mutations have most recently been associated to a novel type of high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), non-syndromic, neonatal-onset intrahepatic chronic cholestasis possibly associated to cilia dysfunction. Herein, we report a new case with further studies of whole exome sequencing (WES) and immunofluorescence in primary cilia of her cultured fibroblasts which confirm the observation. Results: A now 5-year-old girl born to clinically healthy consanguineous Moroccan parents was assessed at 59 days of life due to severe cholestatic jaundice with increased serum bile acids and GGT, and preserved hepatocellular synthetic function. Despite fibrosis/cirrhosis and biliary ducts proliferation on liver biopsy suggested an extrahepatic biliary obstacle, normal intra-operatory cholangiography excluded biliary atresia. Under choleretic treatment, she maintained a clinically stable anicteric cholestasis but developped hyperlipidemia. After exclusion of the main causes of cholestasis by multiple tests, abnormal concentrations of sterols and WES led to a diagnosis of hereditary sitosterolemia (OMIM #618666), likely unrelated to her cholestasis. Further sequencing investigation revealed a homozygous non-sense mutation (p.Arg223Ter) in ZFYVE19 leading to a 222 aa truncated protein and present in both heterozygous parents. Immunofluorescence analysis of primary cilia on cultured skin fibroblasts showed a ciliary phenotype mainly defined by fragmented cilia and centrioles abnormalities. Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with and expands the recent evidence linking ZFYVE19 to a novel, likely non-syndromic, high GGT-PFIC phenotype with neonatal onset. Due to the possible role of ZFYVE19 in cilia function and the unprecedented coexistence of a coincidental hereditary sterol disorder in our case, continuous monitoring will be necessary to substantiate type of liver disease progression and/or possible emergence of a multisystemic involvement. What mentioned above confirms that the application of WES in children with undiagnosed cholestasis may lead to the identification of new causative genes, widening the knowledge on the pathophysiology.
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