Photon-counting computed tomography (CT) is a technology that has attracted increasing interest in recent years since, thanks to new-generation detectors, it holds the promise to radically change the clinical use of CT imaging. Photon-counting detectors overcome the major limitations of conventional CT detectors by providing very high spatial resolution without electronic noise, providing a higher contrast-to-noise ratio, and optimizing spectral images. Additionally, photon-counting CT can lead to reduced radiation exposure, reconstruction of higher spatial resolution images, reduction of image artifacts, optimization of the use of contrast agents, and create new opportunities for quantitative imaging. The aim of this review is to briefly explain the technical principles of photon-counting CT and, more extensively, the potential clinical applications of this technology.
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