Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a member of the Coronavirus family which caused the worldwide pandemic of human respiratory illness coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Presumably emerging at the end of 2019, it poses a severe threat to public health and safety, with a high incidence of transmission, predominately through aerosols and/or direct contact with infected surfaces. In 2020, the search for vaccines began, leading to the obtaining of, to date, about twenty COVID-19 vaccines approved for use in at least one country. However, COVID-19 continues to spread and new genetic mutations and variants have been discovered, requiring pharmacological treatments. The most common therapies for COVID-19 are represented by antiviral and antimalarial agents, antibiotics, immunomodulators, angiotensin II receptor blockers, bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists and corticosteroids. In addition, nutraceuticals, vitamins D and C, omega-3 fatty acids and probiotics are under study. Finally, drug repositioning, which concerns the investigation of existing drugs for new therapeutic target indications, has been widely proposed in the literature for COVID-19 therapies. Considering the importance of this ongoing global public health emergency, this review aims to offer a synthetic up-to-date overview regarding diagnoses, variants and vaccines for COVID-19, with particular attention paid to the adopted treatments.

COVID-19 at a Glance: An Up-to-Date Overview on Variants, Drug Design and Therapies

Ceramella J.;Saturnino C.;Mariconda A.;Longo P.;
2022

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a member of the Coronavirus family which caused the worldwide pandemic of human respiratory illness coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Presumably emerging at the end of 2019, it poses a severe threat to public health and safety, with a high incidence of transmission, predominately through aerosols and/or direct contact with infected surfaces. In 2020, the search for vaccines began, leading to the obtaining of, to date, about twenty COVID-19 vaccines approved for use in at least one country. However, COVID-19 continues to spread and new genetic mutations and variants have been discovered, requiring pharmacological treatments. The most common therapies for COVID-19 are represented by antiviral and antimalarial agents, antibiotics, immunomodulators, angiotensin II receptor blockers, bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists and corticosteroids. In addition, nutraceuticals, vitamins D and C, omega-3 fatty acids and probiotics are under study. Finally, drug repositioning, which concerns the investigation of existing drugs for new therapeutic target indications, has been widely proposed in the literature for COVID-19 therapies. Considering the importance of this ongoing global public health emergency, this review aims to offer a synthetic up-to-date overview regarding diagnoses, variants and vaccines for COVID-19, with particular attention paid to the adopted treatments.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4786711
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