Background: T1 mapping is an established cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) technique that can characterize myocardial tissue. We aimed to determine the weighted mean native T1 values of Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) patients and the standardized mean differences (SMD) as compared to healthy control subjects. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases was conducted according to the PRISMA statement to retrieve original studies reporting myocardial native T1 values in AFD patients and healthy controls. A random effects model was used to calculate SMD, and meta-regression analysis was conducted to explore heterogeneity sources. Subgroup analysis was also performed according to scanner field strength and sequence type. Results: From a total of 151 items, 14 articles were included in the final analysis accounting for a total population of 982 subjects. Overall, the weighted mean native T1 values was 984 ± 47 ms in AFD patients and 1016 ± 26 ms in controls (P < 0.0001) with a pooled SMD of - 2.38. In AFD patients there was an inverse correlation between native T1 values and male gender (P = 0.002) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (P < 0.001). Subgroup analyses confirmed lower T1 values in AFD patients compared to controls with a pooled SMD of - 2.54, - 2.28, - 2.46 for studies performed on 1.5T with modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI), shortened MOLLI and saturation-recovery single-shot acquisition, respectively and of - 2.41 for studies conducted on 3T. Conclusions: Our findings confirm a reduction of native T1 values in AFD patients compared to healthy controls and point out that the degree of T1 shortening in AFD is influenced by gender and LVH. Although T1 mapping is useful in proving cardiac involvement in AFD patients, there is need to standardize shreshold values according to imaging equipment and protocols.
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