Background: White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) of the brain are observed in normal aging, in various subtypes of dementia and in chronic pain, playing a crucial role in pain processing. The aim of the study has been to assess the WMHs in Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) patients by means of the Age-Related White Matter Changes scale (ARWMCs) and to analyze their predictors. Methods: One hundred BMS patients were prospectively recruited and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Their ARWMCs scores were compared with those of an equal number of healthy subjects matched for age and sex. Intensity and quality of pain, psychological profile, and blood biomarkers of BMS patients were further investigated to find potential predictors of WMHs. Specifically, the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Hamilton rating scale for Depression and Anxiety (HAM-D and HAM-A), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were administered. Results: The BMS patients presented statistically significant higher scores on the ARWMCs compared to the controls, especially in the right frontal, left frontal, right parietal-occipital, left parietal-occipital, right temporal and left temporal lobes (p-values: <0.001, <0.001, 0.005, 0.002, 0.009, 0.002, and <0.001, respectively). Age, a lower educational level, unemployment, essential hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were correlated to a higher total score on the ARWMCs (p-values: <0.001, 0.016, 0.014, 0.001, and 0.039, respectively). No correlation was found with the blood biomarkers, NRS, SF-MPQ, HAM-A, HAM-D, PSQI, and ESS. Conclusion: Patients with BMS showed a higher frequency of WMHs of the brain as suggested by the higher ARWCs scores compared with the normal aging of the healthy subjects. These findings could have a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and potentially affect and enhance pain perception.

White matter hyperintensities in Burning Mouth Syndrome assessed according to the Age-Related White Matter Changes scale

Cuocolo, Renato;
2022

Abstract

Background: White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) of the brain are observed in normal aging, in various subtypes of dementia and in chronic pain, playing a crucial role in pain processing. The aim of the study has been to assess the WMHs in Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) patients by means of the Age-Related White Matter Changes scale (ARWMCs) and to analyze their predictors. Methods: One hundred BMS patients were prospectively recruited and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Their ARWMCs scores were compared with those of an equal number of healthy subjects matched for age and sex. Intensity and quality of pain, psychological profile, and blood biomarkers of BMS patients were further investigated to find potential predictors of WMHs. Specifically, the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Hamilton rating scale for Depression and Anxiety (HAM-D and HAM-A), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were administered. Results: The BMS patients presented statistically significant higher scores on the ARWMCs compared to the controls, especially in the right frontal, left frontal, right parietal-occipital, left parietal-occipital, right temporal and left temporal lobes (p-values: <0.001, <0.001, 0.005, 0.002, 0.009, 0.002, and <0.001, respectively). Age, a lower educational level, unemployment, essential hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were correlated to a higher total score on the ARWMCs (p-values: <0.001, 0.016, 0.014, 0.001, and 0.039, respectively). No correlation was found with the blood biomarkers, NRS, SF-MPQ, HAM-A, HAM-D, PSQI, and ESS. Conclusion: Patients with BMS showed a higher frequency of WMHs of the brain as suggested by the higher ARWCs scores compared with the normal aging of the healthy subjects. These findings could have a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and potentially affect and enhance pain perception.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11386/4803093
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