Objective To evaluate the changes in (1) residual myometrial thickness (RMT), (2) cesarean scar defect (CSD) size, and (3) clinical symptoms, before and after channel-like (360 degrees) hysteroscopic resection for the treatment of CSD. Methods A single-center, observational, prospective, cohort study was carried out enrolling all symptomatic patients of childbearing age, diagnosed with CSD and routinely scheduled for channel-like (360 degrees) hysteroscopic resection from July 2020 to July 2021 at the Division of Gynecology and Human Reproduction Physiopathology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Univeristaria di Bologna. University of Bologna, Italy. The primary outcome was the difference in mean RMT before and after the procedure. Secondary outcomes were the differences before and 4 months after the surgery in: (1) CSD size measured by transvaginal ultrasound, (2) visual analog scale (VAS) scores for the symptoms, and (3) abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) rate. Lastly, patients' satisfaction was assessed by the global impression of improvement (PGI-I) score. Results We found a significant difference before and after the procedure in: (1) mean RMT (+2.0 mm; P < 0.001); mean size of the CSD (base: +1.6 mm; height: -2.5 mm; transverse diameter: -3.2 mm; volume: -263.7 mm(3); P < 0.001); (2) mean VAS score for dyspareunia (-5.84; P < 0.001), dysmenorrhea (-8.94; P < 0.001), pelvic pain (-2.94; P < 0.001); (3) AUB rate (91% vs. 3%; P < 0.001). Lastly, the mean PGI-I score +/- SD was 1.7 +/- 0.9. Conclusion Channel-like (360 degrees) hysteroscopic resection for the treatment of patients with symptomatic CSD may lead to an increase in RMT, decrease in CSD, and improvement of symptoms after the procedure, with high patient satisfaction.
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