Anthracyclines are essential adjuvant therapies for a variety of cancers, particularly breast, gastric and esophageal cancers. Whilst prolonging cancer-related survival, these agents can induce drug-related cardiotoxicity. Spirulina, Reishi (Ganoderma Lucidum) and Moringa are three nutraceuticals with anti-inflammatory effects that are currently used in cancer patients as complementary and alternative medicines to improve quality of life and fatigue. We hypothesize that the nutraceutical combination of Spirulina, Reishi and Moringa (Singo) could reduce inflammation and cardiotoxicity induced by anthracyclines. Female C57Bl/6 mice were untreated (Sham, n = 6) or treated for 7 days with short-term doxorubicin (DOXO, n = 6) or Singo (Singo, n = 6), or pre-treated with Singo for 3 days and associated with DOXO for remaining 7 days (DOXO–Singo, n = 6). The ejection fraction and radial and longitudinal strain were analyzed through transthoracic echocardiography (Vevo 2100, Fujifilm). The myocardial expressions of NLRP3, DAMPs (galectin-3 and calgranulin S100) and 13 cytokines were quantified through selective mouse ELISA methods. Myocardial fibrosis, necrosis and hypertrophy were analyzed through immunohistochemistry (IHC). Human cardiomyocytes were exposed to DOXO (200 nM) alone or in combination with Singo (at 10, 25 and 50 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability and inflammation studies were also performed. In preclinical models, Singo significantly improved ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Reduced expressions of myocardial NLRP3 and NF-kB levels in cardiac tissues were seen in DOXO–Singo mice vs. DOXO (p < 0.05). The myocardial levels of calgranulin S100 and galectin-3 were strongly reduced in DOXO–Singo mice vs. DOXO (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analysis indicates that Singo reduces fibrosis and hypertrophy in the myocardial tissues of mice during exposure to DOXO. In conclusion, in the preclinical model of DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity, Singo is able to improve cardiac function and reduce biomarkers involved in heart failure and fibrosis.

Combination of Spirulina Platensis, Ganoderma Lucidum and Moringa Oleifera Improves Cardiac Functions and Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Biomarkers in Preclinical Models of Short-Term Doxorubicin-Mediated Cardiotoxicity: New Frontiers in Cardioncology?

Vestuto, Vincenzo;Ostacolo, Carmine;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Anthracyclines are essential adjuvant therapies for a variety of cancers, particularly breast, gastric and esophageal cancers. Whilst prolonging cancer-related survival, these agents can induce drug-related cardiotoxicity. Spirulina, Reishi (Ganoderma Lucidum) and Moringa are three nutraceuticals with anti-inflammatory effects that are currently used in cancer patients as complementary and alternative medicines to improve quality of life and fatigue. We hypothesize that the nutraceutical combination of Spirulina, Reishi and Moringa (Singo) could reduce inflammation and cardiotoxicity induced by anthracyclines. Female C57Bl/6 mice were untreated (Sham, n = 6) or treated for 7 days with short-term doxorubicin (DOXO, n = 6) or Singo (Singo, n = 6), or pre-treated with Singo for 3 days and associated with DOXO for remaining 7 days (DOXO–Singo, n = 6). The ejection fraction and radial and longitudinal strain were analyzed through transthoracic echocardiography (Vevo 2100, Fujifilm). The myocardial expressions of NLRP3, DAMPs (galectin-3 and calgranulin S100) and 13 cytokines were quantified through selective mouse ELISA methods. Myocardial fibrosis, necrosis and hypertrophy were analyzed through immunohistochemistry (IHC). Human cardiomyocytes were exposed to DOXO (200 nM) alone or in combination with Singo (at 10, 25 and 50 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability and inflammation studies were also performed. In preclinical models, Singo significantly improved ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Reduced expressions of myocardial NLRP3 and NF-kB levels in cardiac tissues were seen in DOXO–Singo mice vs. DOXO (p < 0.05). The myocardial levels of calgranulin S100 and galectin-3 were strongly reduced in DOXO–Singo mice vs. DOXO (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analysis indicates that Singo reduces fibrosis and hypertrophy in the myocardial tissues of mice during exposure to DOXO. In conclusion, in the preclinical model of DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity, Singo is able to improve cardiac function and reduce biomarkers involved in heart failure and fibrosis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4812097
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