Mast cells (MCs) are immune cells distributed in many organs and tissues and involved in the pathogenesis of allergic and inflammatory diseases as a major source of pro-inflammatory and vasoactive mediators. MC-related disorders are heterogeneous conditions characterized by the proliferation of MC within tissues and/or MC hyper-reactivity that leads to the uncontrolled release of mediators. MC disorders include mastocytosis, a clonal disease characterized by tissue MC proliferation, and MC activation syndromes that can be primary (clonal), secondary (related to allergic disorders), or idiopathic. Diagnosis of MC disorders is difficult because symptoms are transient, unpredictable, and unspecific, and because these conditions mimic many other diseases. Validation of markers of MC activation in vivo will be useful to allow faster diagnosis and better management of MC disorders. Tryptase, being the most specific MC product, is a widely used biomarker of proliferation and activation. Other mediators, such as histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and prostaglandin D2, are unstable molecules and have limitations in their assays. Surface MC markers, detected by flow cytometry, are useful for the identification of neoplastic MC in mastocytosis but, so far, none of them has been validated as a biomarker of MC activation. Further studies are needed to identify useful biomarkers of MC activation in vivo.

Secretory and Membrane-Associated Biomarkers of Mast Cell Activation and Proliferation

Parente R.;Giudice V.;Cardamone C.;Serio B.;Selleri C.;Triggiani M.
2023-01-01

Abstract

Mast cells (MCs) are immune cells distributed in many organs and tissues and involved in the pathogenesis of allergic and inflammatory diseases as a major source of pro-inflammatory and vasoactive mediators. MC-related disorders are heterogeneous conditions characterized by the proliferation of MC within tissues and/or MC hyper-reactivity that leads to the uncontrolled release of mediators. MC disorders include mastocytosis, a clonal disease characterized by tissue MC proliferation, and MC activation syndromes that can be primary (clonal), secondary (related to allergic disorders), or idiopathic. Diagnosis of MC disorders is difficult because symptoms are transient, unpredictable, and unspecific, and because these conditions mimic many other diseases. Validation of markers of MC activation in vivo will be useful to allow faster diagnosis and better management of MC disorders. Tryptase, being the most specific MC product, is a widely used biomarker of proliferation and activation. Other mediators, such as histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and prostaglandin D2, are unstable molecules and have limitations in their assays. Surface MC markers, detected by flow cytometry, are useful for the identification of neoplastic MC in mastocytosis but, so far, none of them has been validated as a biomarker of MC activation. Further studies are needed to identify useful biomarkers of MC activation in vivo.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4826452
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