High proportion of energy storage systems (ESSs) and flexible loads signify the main features of a modern power system. ESS with its bi-directional flow characteristic can flexibly change power network operations, thus providing a new solution for voltage regulation and control. However, since ESS resources are dispersed throughout the power system, it is necessary to design an effective aggregation scheme to achieve a concise voltage regulation. In this paper, a novel sponge grid is proposed, which is capable of both local and global tasks to offer greater flexibility and initiative in power system operations. On the one hand, it constructs the source and forms virtual energy storage (VES) systems to satisfy local demands. On the other hand, the sponge grid applies the superposition of a large number of VES systems spontaneous effects to present a collective voltage regulation behavior. Then, a message passing-based decentralized algorithm is proposed and designed for the local voltage regulation in the sponge grid. Various constraints including those representing inequality boundary, state of charge, and complex line flows, are expressed analytically and computed fast by the proposed portable projection approach. The proposed sponge grid model is tested on a modified IEEE 33-bus system to verify its effectiveness and superior performance.
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