Climatic changes and the growing population call for innovative solutions that are able to produce biochemicals by adopting environmentally sustainable procedures. The biorefinery concept meets this requirement. However, one of the main drawbacks of biorefineries is represented by the feedstocks' pretreatment. Lately, scientific research has focused on non-thermal plasma, which is an innovative and sustainable pretreatment that is able to obtain a high sugar concentration. In the present review, literature related to the use of non-thermal plasma for the production of fermentable sugar have been collected. In particular, its sugar extraction, time, and energy consumption have been compared with those of traditional biomass pretreatments. As reported, on one hand, this emerging technology is characterized by low costs and no waste production; on the other hand, the reactor's configuration must be optimized to reduce time and energy demand.
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