: Plant cells secrete membrane-enclosed micrometer- and nanometer-sized vesicles that, similarly to the extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by mammalian or bacterial cells, carry a complex molecular cargo of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and primary and secondary metabolites. While it is technically complicated to isolate EVs from whole plants or their tissues, in vitro plant cell cultures provide excellent model systems for their study. Plant EVs have been isolated from the conditioned culture media of plant cell, pollen, hairy root, and protoplast cultures, and recent studies have gathered important structural and biological data that provide a framework to decipher their physiological roles and unveil previously unacknowledged links to their diverse biological functions. The primary function of plant EVs seems to be in the secretion that underlies cell growth and morphogenesis, cell wall composition, and cell-cell communication processes. Besides their physiological functions, plant EVs may participate in defence mechanisms against different plant pathogens, including fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Whereas edible and medicinal-plant-derived nanovesicles isolated from homogenised plant materials ex vivo are widely studied and exploited, today, plant EV research is still in its infancy. This review, for the first time, highlights the different in vitro sources that have been used to isolate plant EVs, together with the structural and biological studies that investigate the molecular cargo, and pinpoints the possible role of plant EVs as mediators in plant-pathogen interactions, which may contribute to opening up new scenarios for agricultural applications, biotechnology, and innovative strategies for plant disease management.

Plant Extracellular Vesicles: Current Landscape and Future Directions

Ambrosone, Alfredo;Cappetta, Elisa;
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Plant cells secrete membrane-enclosed micrometer- and nanometer-sized vesicles that, similarly to the extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by mammalian or bacterial cells, carry a complex molecular cargo of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and primary and secondary metabolites. While it is technically complicated to isolate EVs from whole plants or their tissues, in vitro plant cell cultures provide excellent model systems for their study. Plant EVs have been isolated from the conditioned culture media of plant cell, pollen, hairy root, and protoplast cultures, and recent studies have gathered important structural and biological data that provide a framework to decipher their physiological roles and unveil previously unacknowledged links to their diverse biological functions. The primary function of plant EVs seems to be in the secretion that underlies cell growth and morphogenesis, cell wall composition, and cell-cell communication processes. Besides their physiological functions, plant EVs may participate in defence mechanisms against different plant pathogens, including fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Whereas edible and medicinal-plant-derived nanovesicles isolated from homogenised plant materials ex vivo are widely studied and exploited, today, plant EV research is still in its infancy. This review, for the first time, highlights the different in vitro sources that have been used to isolate plant EVs, together with the structural and biological studies that investigate the molecular cargo, and pinpoints the possible role of plant EVs as mediators in plant-pathogen interactions, which may contribute to opening up new scenarios for agricultural applications, biotechnology, and innovative strategies for plant disease management.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4855552
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