Background: A better understanding of pain in adult-onset idiopathic dystonia (AOID) is needed to implement effective therapeutic strategies. Objective: To develop a new rating instrument for pain in AOID and validate it in cervical dystonia (CD). Methods: Development and validation of the Pain in Dystonia Scale (PIDS) comprised three phases. In phase 1, international experts and participants with AOID generated and evaluated the preliminary items for content validity. In phase 2, the PIDS was drafted and revised by the experts, followed by cognitive interviews to ensure self-administration suitability. In phase 3, the PIDS psychometric properties were assessed in 85 participants with CD and retested in 40 participants. Results: The final version of PIDS evaluates pain severity (by body-part), functional impact, and external modulating factors. Test-retest reliability showed a high-correlation coefficient for the total score (0.9, P < 0.001), and intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.7 or higher for all items in all body-parts subscores. The overall PIDS severity score showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's α, 0.9). Convergent validity analysis revealed a strong correlation between the PIDS severity score and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale pain subscale (0.8, P < 0.001) and the Brief Pain Inventory-short form items related to pain at time of the assessment (0.7, P < 0.001) and impact of pain on daily functioning (0.7, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The PIDS is the first specific questionnaire developed to evaluate pain in all patients with AOID, here, demonstrating high-level psychometric properties in people with CD. Future work will validate PIDS in other forms of AOID. © 2023 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

The Pain in Dystonia Scale (PIDS)-Development and Validation in Cervical Dystonia

Erro, Roberto;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background: A better understanding of pain in adult-onset idiopathic dystonia (AOID) is needed to implement effective therapeutic strategies. Objective: To develop a new rating instrument for pain in AOID and validate it in cervical dystonia (CD). Methods: Development and validation of the Pain in Dystonia Scale (PIDS) comprised three phases. In phase 1, international experts and participants with AOID generated and evaluated the preliminary items for content validity. In phase 2, the PIDS was drafted and revised by the experts, followed by cognitive interviews to ensure self-administration suitability. In phase 3, the PIDS psychometric properties were assessed in 85 participants with CD and retested in 40 participants. Results: The final version of PIDS evaluates pain severity (by body-part), functional impact, and external modulating factors. Test-retest reliability showed a high-correlation coefficient for the total score (0.9, P < 0.001), and intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.7 or higher for all items in all body-parts subscores. The overall PIDS severity score showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's α, 0.9). Convergent validity analysis revealed a strong correlation between the PIDS severity score and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale pain subscale (0.8, P < 0.001) and the Brief Pain Inventory-short form items related to pain at time of the assessment (0.7, P < 0.001) and impact of pain on daily functioning (0.7, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The PIDS is the first specific questionnaire developed to evaluate pain in all patients with AOID, here, demonstrating high-level psychometric properties in people with CD. Future work will validate PIDS in other forms of AOID. © 2023 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4858524
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