Infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality during kidney transplant. In areas where tuberculosis is not endemic, Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOOT), also known as 'atypical' Mycobacteria, are more frequently involved in mycobacterial infections than M. tuberculosis. The incidence of MOOT infection in renal transplant recipients ranges from 0.16 to 0.38 percent. This low rate of reported incidence is, however, often due to delay in diagnosis and lack of therapeutic protocols. Further difficulty is caused by the interaction of antimycobacterial drugs with the post-transplant immunosuppressive regimen, necessitating close monitoring of plasma concentrations and careful dose modification. We present two cases of Mycobacterium Chelonae infection in kidney transplant recipients which differ in both clinical presentation and pharmacological approach.
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