The most common administration route for pharmaceuticals is the oral one. A drug orally administered has to undergo several processes in order to carry out its therapeutic potential. The pharmaceutical has to dissolve and to release the API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) in the desired location along the GI (Gastro Intestinal) tract, to pass through the intestinal wall, to overcome the liver (first-pass metabolism), and finally to reach the plasma, where it has to be stable during its travel toward the target organ/tissue. The key roles in this complex framework are played by the design (such as matrices, reservoirs, enteric systems) and the testing of the pharmaceuticals. This review is focused on the state of the art in the pharmaceutical testing methods, carried out by the simulation of what happens once the pharmaceutical has been administered, investigating the in vitro approach. In the first section, the generalities of the dissolution and the ADME (Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) phenomena are investigated. In the second section, the in vitro apparatuses are described, with a special focus on the role of food in their design and behavior. Some case histories of application for each approach are also discussed.
|Titolo:||Gastrointestinal behavior and ADME phenomena: I. In vitro simulation|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articoli su Rivista|