Epilepsy is a widely diffused neurological disorder including a heterogeneous range of syndromes with different aetiology, severity and prognosis. Pharmacological treatments are based on the use, either in mono- or in polytherapy, of antiseizure medications (ASMs), which act at different synaptic levels, generally modifying the excitatory and/or inhibitory response through different action mechanisms. To reduce the risk of adverse effects and drug interactions, ASMs levels should be closely evaluated in biological fluids performing an appropriate Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM). However, many decisions in TDM are based on the determination of the total drug concentration although measurement of the free fraction, which is not bound to plasma proteins, is becoming of ever-increasing importance since it correlates better with pharmacological and toxicological effects. Aim of this work has been to review methodological aspects concerning the evaluation of the free plasmatic fraction of some ASMs, focusing on the effect and the clinical significance that drug-protein binding has in the case of widely used drugs such as valproic acid, phenytoin, perampanel and carbamazepine. Although several validated methodologies are currently available which are effective in separating and quantifying the different forms of a drug, prospective validation studies are undoubtedly needed to better correlate, in real-world clinical contexts, pharmacokinetic monitoring to clinical outcomes.
Charlier, Bruno;Coglianese, Albino;De Rosa, Federica;Operto, Francesca Felicia;Coppola, Giangennaro;Filippelli, Amelia;Dal Piaz, Fabrizio;Izzo, Viviana
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