The spreading of machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) methods in different and critical application domains, like medicine and healthcare, introduces many opportunities but raises risks and opens ethical issues, mainly attaining to the lack of transparency. This contribution deals with the lack of transparency of ML and DL models focusing on the lack of trust in predictions and decisions generated. In this sense, this paper establishes a measure, namely Congruity, to provide information about the reliability of ML/DL model results. Congruity is defined by the lattice extracted through the formal concept analysis built on the training data. It measures how much the incoming data items are close to the ones used at the training stage of the ML and DL models. The general idea is that the reliability of trained model results is highly correlated with the similarity of input data and the training set. The objective of the paper is to demonstrate the correlation between the Congruity and the well-known Accuracy of the whole ML/DL model. Experimental results reveal that the value of correlation between Congruity and Accuracy of ML model is greater than 80% by varying ML models.

Toward reliable machine learning with Congruity: a quality measure based on formal concept analysis

De Maio, Carmen;Fenza, Giuseppe;Gallo, Mariacristina;Loia, Vincenzo;Stanzione, Claudio
2022

Abstract

The spreading of machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) methods in different and critical application domains, like medicine and healthcare, introduces many opportunities but raises risks and opens ethical issues, mainly attaining to the lack of transparency. This contribution deals with the lack of transparency of ML and DL models focusing on the lack of trust in predictions and decisions generated. In this sense, this paper establishes a measure, namely Congruity, to provide information about the reliability of ML/DL model results. Congruity is defined by the lattice extracted through the formal concept analysis built on the training data. It measures how much the incoming data items are close to the ones used at the training stage of the ML and DL models. The general idea is that the reliability of trained model results is highly correlated with the similarity of input data and the training set. The objective of the paper is to demonstrate the correlation between the Congruity and the well-known Accuracy of the whole ML/DL model. Experimental results reveal that the value of correlation between Congruity and Accuracy of ML model is greater than 80% by varying ML models.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4807736
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