The main physicochemical characteristics of novel artisanal chocolates (both dark and milky) intended for vegan consumers or for those requiring assumption of fewer simple sugars, were analysed. Replacement of milk (with coconut copra, almonds, and soy protein isolates), and sucrose (with coconut sugars, stevia and erythritol, respectively) in dark chocolate, were accounted for by means of texture analysis, rheology, water activity, fatty acid composition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fast field cycling (FFC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. The vegan sample (i.e., the milk-less one) showed lower values of hardness and adhesiveness as well as a larger peak in the melting behavior at the calorimetric evaluation (DSC). Moreover, the absence of milk resulted in the halving of the yield stress and a decrease in both the apparent and Casson’s viscosity. In the sample of chocolate with less sucrose, the peak temperatures measured at the DSC indicate crystallization of cocoa butter in its best form (Vβ2), unlike in dark chocolate, due to the different sugar composition. Similarly, the Casson yield stress (τ0), increased significantly (almost 70%), with the substitution of sugar. Finally, the results of NMR FFC relaxometry made it possible to identify aggregates of different sizes, laying the basis for its use as a rapid, non-destructive method for chocolate analysis.

Vegan and sugar-substituted chocolates: assessing physicochemical characteristics by NMR relaxometry, rheology, and DSC

Albanese D.;
2024-01-01

Abstract

The main physicochemical characteristics of novel artisanal chocolates (both dark and milky) intended for vegan consumers or for those requiring assumption of fewer simple sugars, were analysed. Replacement of milk (with coconut copra, almonds, and soy protein isolates), and sucrose (with coconut sugars, stevia and erythritol, respectively) in dark chocolate, were accounted for by means of texture analysis, rheology, water activity, fatty acid composition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fast field cycling (FFC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. The vegan sample (i.e., the milk-less one) showed lower values of hardness and adhesiveness as well as a larger peak in the melting behavior at the calorimetric evaluation (DSC). Moreover, the absence of milk resulted in the halving of the yield stress and a decrease in both the apparent and Casson’s viscosity. In the sample of chocolate with less sucrose, the peak temperatures measured at the DSC indicate crystallization of cocoa butter in its best form (Vβ2), unlike in dark chocolate, due to the different sugar composition. Similarly, the Casson yield stress (τ0), increased significantly (almost 70%), with the substitution of sugar. Finally, the results of NMR FFC relaxometry made it possible to identify aggregates of different sizes, laying the basis for its use as a rapid, non-destructive method for chocolate analysis.
2024
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11386/4861512
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